Avant-garde trends, which have emerged on the eve of the twentieth century, are an endless source of inspiration for researchers and designers, which is largely determined by the totality of the impact of these concepts on art and culture, and the penetration of the avant-garde thinking in various activities. Fashion of the early twentieth century, does not avoid the impacts of the reminiscences, which are observed in the XXI century.
“The avant-garde trend” in the fashion of the early twentieth century breaks the usual understanding. It is expressed in non-traditional systems of formation, referring to the industrial technology. The geometric motifs with a preference for local and open flowers become very popular. Geometry pervades form, design and decor items. Clothes are decorated with abstract patterns and non-objective fabrics. This becomes the most fashionable trend. Makeup with shocking futuristic motives complements revolutionized outlook demonstrated by creator as new behavior and ideal of emancipation. It is used the black eyeliner, dark red lipstick, colored nail polish, painted on the face and body. Fashion expresses the spirit of the new industrial age, “reinforces the desire” to work actively.
The traditional “fashion psychologically does not reflect the habits, lifestyle, aesthetic taste”. It has become a new social norm, reporting certain social action, various branches of work, and types of production, while reflecting an ideology leading and values ??of life. In 1920s, a distinctive feature of the urban costume is the absence of any conventional jewelry. Color serves as the main jewelry. Color reflects the main idea of ??the “new man” with his/her resolute mood. The creation of costume is typical expression of the avant-garde with a thrust to the rigid geometry and vibrant local color. Also it is often neglected the form of the human body and it is shown as stylized, logic, order, and versatility of the composition.
Ideals “reasonable expediency”, conversion capabilities and the ultimate form of rationalization of the use are the basic principles of modeling experiments of the costume and the casual clothes
The complex transformed variants of suits appear in fashion world. The artist formulates a number of ideas: how to use a variety of color combinations and ways of dressing Suit; how to get an evening dress or business suit from the home dress.
One of the ideologues of Italian Futurism Giacomo Balla, in 1913, published the “Manifesto of clothing man of the future”, which describes in detail the appearance of the future Information hero: “The design has to be very dynamic, and the pictures have to be intense geometric, let it be triangles, circles , spirals, ellipses, squares!”.
Textiles for avant-garde artists became a kind of output in the objective world of painting. They create a new trend in the ornamentation of fabrics by using the achievements of the “Left” art (including Suprematism). They abandon visual images and use the geometric shapes. Direct line with a limited number of colors is the main element of ornaments for fabrics.
Bright experiments in decorating fabric of the early twentieth century are accompanied by the introduction of industrial methods of production drawings for printed fabrics.
Modern printing technology significantly increases the possibility of decorating. Modern design is often catchy and pointless. It is made in 2-3 colors and may include elements of humor, ethnic, sports, and tourism symbolism. It expresses affiliation with any of the subcultures. It can be a carrier logo or commercial brand, contain font compositions, slogans. Decorated with prints T-shirts and bags are often elements of corporate branding.
Existing technology allows almost any textile basis, for example, various textures (rubber, velvet, plastic, paper). ” The light reflection is used to get the fabric material effect of luminescence”.
These creative experiments again send us back to the ideas of the avant-garde of the early twentieth century, when it was discussed the principles of cutting, design costumes, sewing processes and, of course, “the ideological content” of clothes. The visual solutions suit is important: precision color selection, sign and symbolic content, the perceived purity of form and clarity of expression.
The modern technology of digital printing methods (electrostatic printing, thermography, electrophotography) produces more consistent color and more beautiful texture. Issei Miyake, Jean-Charles de Castelbajac, Christian Dior, Kenzo used painting prints in their collections. Technological achievements, in general, have a tremendous influence on the development of general trends in the suit. Thus, according to constructivists’ thoughts, the dependence of costume industry on evolution of technology is certain”. Forecasting the future invasion of technology into the world of costume design, D.Ball said: “Things will phosphorescent and shine. Flavored underwear, socks antiseptic appear. Will pants with electric lights appear? Then there will be fabrics that change color depending on the mood of the person”.
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As a response to these projections, we now see a technological progress in the search for fabric structures, methods and techniques of its decoration. The glow effect occurs when the fluorescent dyes for fabrics is used. They are created by mixing the paint microscopic glass beads, glowing in contact with electric light.
There are shocking experiments with non-traditional and non-woven fabrics, for example, dress coloring Colour-In-Dress by Berber Soepboer and Michiel Schuurman, “meat dress” Lady Gaga by Nicola Formichetti, the dress of the grass on the artist Robin Barcus Slonina, wedding dress from toilet paper from designers Laura Gawne, Susan Bain and Roxie Radford, dress balloons from Daisy Balloon. “Women’s clothes are sewn with the beads of coffee, cloves, garlic cloves and dried grapes. Hats are decorated with fish bones, and made of porcelain, sandstone and shells” – Fashion Collection (fashion magazine) says.
In the XXI century, nanotechnology, as the key area of industrial development and the progress of society, invade the fashion. Modern trends use nanotechnology in textile and product design. It can be divided into three categories: improving textiles using nanomaterials and nanocoatings, introduction to traditional materials of electronic components and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), hybridization of textiles and biomimetic systems. Formation submolecular structure allows to make textile materials completely new and unique, for example, water resistant (company Nano-Tex), self-cleaning (Clemson University), colored fabrics without dye (Nissan Motor Co., Teijin Ltd and Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo KK), «smart” or non-shrink wool woll science (Woolmark), mosquito tissue (Healthguard Corporation).
Design of color and light, smells, sounds define the role in the modern world. Building models with light effects, with aromas of tissue, with liquid crystals that change color depending on the light or the temperature of the human body, and even sounding products make the process of development of the fashion industry in entertainment, and in a kind of creative work, which causes a variety of emotions. “The color line of work in the field of” smart fiber “is associated with the development of new types of army camouflage and development of fashion, offering clothes with unusual color effects. Their essence is the use of photo-, thermo-and gidrohromic dyes. Their painted fabrics can change the color of the action of water, heat and light like a chameleon. Changes can have a local character and indefinite form a distinct pattern on certain parts or sections of clothes “.
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Ambiguity and diversity of the fashion trends of the XXI century with a wide range of formation: from spacious baggy silhouettes (Joanna Green, Antonio Marras, Angela Missoni) to dresses, tight, like a second skin (Ani Mlakar, Karl Lagerfeld), this sets the basic trajectory of the costume design and the variety of ways to “wear” clothes. Right combination of different things, colors and materials create conditions for each person’s free expression. The role of the costume in the world that focuses on the formation of the concepts of clothing bearing the joy of freedom in the “gray days” of everyday life, it is an important trend and is supported by many leading designers.This is evidenced by the outbursts of youth subcultures (hippies, punks, passion parkour, breakdancing, graffiti, social activity sexual minorities), which provokes a wave of innovative styles, behaviors and actions in dress and appearance. It is breaking stereotypes, norms, rules and values.
The ideal time for a century, from the beginning of the twentieth century to the early twenty-first, is undergoing a significant role of a woman-object, no longer interested her spirituality, her interests, her professionalism. Now, the paramount importance is how she is able to wear the dress. In the period of post-modernism, “the body is in the center of the world”. On the other hand, modern woman is a business lady. She is purposeful, active and confident.
In conclusion, I would like to stress the importance of the avant-garde ideas that anticipate the development of new types of clothing and forms of “wearing”, predicting the emergence of new styles, trends, and materials. Avant-garde fashion of the early twentieth century concentrates the positive moments of the “new design” (really energetic, experimental, self-reinforcing). It announces the actual logic, flexibility, relaxation, ability to transform “the spirit of the industrial age.” It is distinguished by bright stylistic features: new forms and silhouettes, active contrasting color combinations, extensive use of simple geometric shapes, rigid elements and dynamic lines, which are still a substantial part of the arsenal of modern designers. The invasion of technology in the fashion industry gets a logical continuation in the modern search and nanotechnology experiments in the end of XX – and in the beginning of XXI century.
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