The great aim of the contemporary and past literature legacy is ubiquitously considered to be a delivery of a single, unique message to the targeted audience, although the methods of such delivery may greatly vary across time periods and the various literature methods and styles. The literature delivery methods that can be apt and relevant for the modernists are likely to be completely rejected by the representatives of classical school or realism writers. The issue remains one of the most topical on the paradigmatic literature arena and incremental efforts are being taken by the international literature community to achieve uniformity and dogmatic, unified and single perception for an average reader with non-academic background.
The need to bring this uniformity is driven by a multiple set of reasons. First and foremost, the underpinning of the entire literature composition activity is the message that shall be delivered to the targeted audience. Different authors have vigorously expressed various opinions with regard to this issue, with the most contributive impact made by the scholars and writers of the classical school. Whilst the relevance of this process is relatively dubious and challenged by the contemporary literature activists, the benefits of this literature process are evident.
The first work is the one that has been completed by Zaidin Abidin Bakar, called “Beyond Reasoning”. The story described the life of an old man imploring his nephew to pay for his fare home. The second story is the work of Abinaj Haji Mormin, called “Foolish”. The story describes the life of a pregnant lady, facing various life problems and is specifically focused on self-condemnation of the key figure. The study is also focused on the academic exploration of Renra Work “Prostitutes in Jakarta – Unite” and “The Department”, which main message is to condemn and criticize the existing political regimes and the way the people react to them. The marvelous mold-breaking poems of Huu Thin “Winter Letter” and “Waiting” are of the totally different literature style.
Overall, all these poems are aimed to deliver a specific message to the targeted readers, whether this message is the importance of love, political instability of the country, the beauty and singularity of the winter landscape or the presentiments and emotions, both positive and negative that accompany a lady waiting for her love. The comparative analysis of these works are aimed to prove the fact that whatever the message of the author is, every writer instinctively tries to do his best to make the readers’ community comprehend the message and the application of the literature techniques do vary greatly. The essay begins with the individual evaluation of the literature pieces, and then it is followed by the encapsulating part which summarizes the major point of the analyzed works. Ultimately, the essay is finalized by the recapitulation of the main findings and the way they support the thesis statement of the paper.
The story is focused on the dialogue between the old man and his relatively well-off nephew. The old man narrates a considerably pitiful story about the adventures he faced when arriving to Kuala Lumpur with the objective to raise money, since his own village no longer provides employment opportunities for either him or the people of younger age. The criticism of the author is indirectly put on the industrialization of the community in particular and of the country in general, since with the mechanization of the agricultural sector, traditional employment places are no longer required. The seeds are weeded by the machines, the fertilization of the rice fields and their watering has been robotized and the old man was driven to the city to seek his fortune in order to pay the bills and to provide his big family with all necessities. Although small passages of the essay explain how he faced all his bad fortunes, it is evident that the author poses specific attention to the narration of these details. One of the most important messages of the story is to criticize indirectly the current economic and political situation of the country and to put emphasis on the destitute conditions the poor people live in.
Another important issue of the story is the analysis of the human nature, skillfully elucidated by the author. In this paradigm of the story two aspects are to be accentuated. First and foremost, the humble way the old man supplicated his nephew to pay for his fare back home and his narration about the theft that took place. That moment of the story is indeed the most touching. By stating this, the author tried to convince the audience that current cultural and, more importantly, social relationships structure of the society is far from perfect, since the old people are virtually forced to ask for help from their younger and more vigorous relatives. Normally, that assistance shall be proposed as a due, while the nephew has made an interrogation for his long suffered uncle. On the other hand, the comments intentionally put by the authors reveal that both interlocutors, although tried to remain outwardly sincere and honest, were truly far from being such, since all of them had their hidden motives. The uncle tried to get as much money as possible in order to make his trip back by means of buying some food and making a leg of the journey on foot. However, the author truly tends to justify such behavior of the old, by depicting in detail the circumstances of the case. The old man was robbed while sleeping and all his money were stolen. He had no real, implementable opportunities in the village and this little lie can be forgiven. On the other hand, his nephew was doing everything possible, since he seemed irritated and vexed by his presence. Besides, his relative made a detailed inquiry about the adventures of that poor, although the dogmas of the social rules clearly manifest that in such situation he ought to give the money and not ask irrelevant questions.
Overall, the message of the author is triplicate in its nature. First, he indirectly criticizes the economic situation of the country, in which average citizens cannot effectively campaign against the attack of the technological process. Secondly, the condemnation is put on the politicians who conditioned the existence of that situation. The business and the prosperity of the landlords in supported and facilitated by the activity of the state institutions. Lastly, he analyzes and criticizes the relations between the people. However, innocent and trivial the story may seem, it is really infested with the harshest indignation and criticism possible and the delivery methods utilized are the allegory and illustration.
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In fact, the author seems to have effectively tackled to address the issues effectively, since an average target reader is expected to grasp the message easily.
The main message of this story is the social imperfections of the contemporary society, in particular its middle-class stratum which currently represents the majority of the world’s population. The choice of a pregnant woman was not random, since child bearing is considered among the most sacred values of the contemporary and ancient cultures. The importance of pregnancy and progeny rise has been recognized both in the Bible and the Quran, to which the lady applies throughout the story. Traditionally, all the booming activity of the humankind has been focused on the family support and all the wars, the social tensions and revolutions have been instigated by the men in order to seek better fortune for their wives and children. In particular, all social events have been initiated by the quest for money and other material values. Richness and abundance was never requested, but decent level, on the other hand, has been always prioritized by the men.
Overall, the author tried to convince the targeted audience that the society has become excessively preoccupied with its incremental quest for material benefits. The pregnant lady is no longer taking constant care for her coming baby, but she is bragging and taking pride of her luxuriant car, which she considers the most sacred and valuable asset she has. She maneuvers through the traffic and all her attention is dedicated to deft auto movements in order not get scratched. When she finally got struck by another driver, her thoughts became totally invaded by the presentiments over the fortune of her car and specifically the fact that car is no longer beautiful. The horror of the situation is aggravated by the arrival of her husband, whose first inquiries are confined not to the well-being of his wife and their coming baby, but to the gravity of the accident repercussions. The author accentuates the absurdity of the situation by providing a dialogue between the husband and the driver.
In general, the message of the author of this story is nothing but criticism of the communal structures. The emphasis is intentionally laid on the fact that the people worship material values, while disregard the importance of those which priority is dictated both by the religion and the culture.
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The works of Rendra are purely political in their nature, however, distant from this area they outwardly may seem to be. The first poem attacks the sophistication of the society. Prostitution is universally considered as one of the most dejected sins of the humanity. It shall be eradicated and uprooted from the very essence. It is severely prohibited by the multiple religious prescriptions and social rules. In contrast, the activity of the government and the society fertilizes it. The last thing to legalize it and to make it formally and socially acceptable that is left is the establishment of the professional prostitutes union.
The second poem, “The Department” was written to ridicule the pompous but absolutely useless activity of the state institutions. It tells that the state authorities vested with power constitutes the biggest danger that can be faced by the social stratums, since their impunity perfects them to manipulate the people. This practice is both a crime and a sin.
Overall, the works are condemning in their tone. The author referred to illustration as the method of literature delivery and this tactic did seem to have completely justified itself.
Relating to the story written by Catherine Lim it shall be highlighted that the story is the most singular one. The author does not criticize anything, but rather pays her eulogies to our ancestors and puts an accent on the fact that we shall never forget them. Moreover, in their hereafter they still keep taking care of us. Despite the fact that the initial intention of the author to penetrate to the house to see the ghosts of the family was not welcomed by her mother, since the spiritual appearances of the resting relatives may be enraged by the fact that someone disturbs their eternal calmness, the intrusion was not only forgiven, but even welcome by the granddad, since he had the opportunity to see his granddaughter and he was reassured that she was all right, as he predicted many years before.
The ghosts are universally recognized by the community as something atrocious that shall be always evaded and kept at distance. However, no one has ever been puzzled with the idea that in fact the spirits of the resting ones are good on their nature and stay in our world to be assured that everything is smooth with their progeny. They sacrifice their eternal calmness for this opportunity.
The aim of this story is to highlight the importance of the divine connection between the ancestors and the descendants and, most importantly, the fact that this connection shall never be lost.
These poems are merely descriptive in their natures, although their message is drastically different. The first one has been written with the intent to eulogize the beauty and perfectness of the winter scenery, the one which is single and will never be reiterated again. The author admires it and is impressed by its flavor and wonderfulness. The second poem describes the feelings of the sister waiting twenty years for the arrival of her cherished brother. The purpose is to put accent on her strong will and resoluteness to wait for him. At the commencement of the poem it seems that the author narrates about his bride, but at the very end of the poem it becomes clear that the main figure is his sister, who is not really obliged to be tortured this way.
Evidently, the author was simply trying to convey his emotions to the targeted audience in his first poem and to eulogize the devotion and fidelity of all people who act dedicatedly, when they are not required to act so.
Having recapitulated the main findings of this poems and stories, several important conclusions are to be inferred. First and foremost, all authors tried to deliver a specific message to their readers, with it either being criticism of the current political regime, economic rule or societal situation of a particular country. Secondly, the authors use various methods to succeed in their task, ranging from simple depiction methods to complex metaphors and allegories used to ridicule the activity of the state institutions and their booming, but still totally useless activity. The sentiments and the feelings of the waiting sister were also intentionally highlighted by the mere describing tools and techniques.
Overall, the goal of the authors seemed to be completely achieved. Firstly, they have really managed to reach their targeted audience. No purely academic sophisticated techniques have been used and, therefore, the community can easily perceive what the authors intended to bring. Secondly, the all the analyzed literature pieces contained plentiful and diverse literature delivery techniques, which are important to ensure the richness and the captivity of the works. Therefore, it can be assumed that the targeted readers are informed, retained and interested and the authors have fulfilled their mission completely.
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