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Bi-Polar Disorder

Free Essays about Health
Study of Bi-Polar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a condition in which an individual exhibits changes in moods. Formerly known as manic depression, the condition can cause a change in mood from one extreme to another in an individual. Individuals with bipolar disorder exhibit periods of high mood referred to as hypomania or mania and periods of depression. The mania period is characterized by a lot of excitement and excessive energy. As such, the individuals in this condition find themselves making poor decisions without considering the consequences of their actions. Bipolar I and II are the types of condition that is common among individuals. Bipolar I disorder arises when one experiences a period of mania. Some of the effects of this type include low socioeconomic activity, which is common mostly when one experiences more exciting episodes. It is equally common in both males and females. Bipolar II disorder, on the other hand, is common among those who have experienced episodes of both mania and depression. The treatment of bipolar disorder is targeted towards minimizing the severity and instance of mania and depression episodes. Examples of treatments available for bipolar disorder include the medication that is aimed at treating the symptoms of both mania and depression when they arise. Finally, a patient can learn to identify the symptoms and prevent them before they become severe disorder s of this type include’s are allowed in this task.

Bipolar disorder is a condition in humans where an individual exhibits changes in moods over time. Formerly known as manic depression, the condition can cause a change in mood from one extreme to another in an individual (National Health Service, 2015). Individuals with bipolar disorder exhibit periods of high mood referred to as hypomania or mania and periods of depression. Generally, the condition is highly risky especially during the mania periods when a person feels high and the behavior exhibited is overactive. This often leads to acts such as suicide attempts by those suffering from the condition. Moreover, the mania period is characterized by a lot of excitement and excessive energy (National Health Service, 2015). As such, the individuals in this condition find themselves making poor decisions without considering the consequences of their actions. Due to the high activeness of individuals during the period, there is a limited sleep.

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The depression period, on the other hand, is characterized by a low level of activities of an individual. Additionally, one generally has poor eye contact as well as a negative outlook on life. Some of the negative effects that are likely to arise during this period include self-harm and suicide, where one is tempted to commit suicide or harm himself or herself (National Health Service, 2015). Therefore, this report presents a study of bipolar disorder. It provides an overview of the symptoms, causes, and treatment of the condition as well as a brief overview of the types of bipolar disorder.

Types of Bipolar Disorders

Bipolar disorder can be classified based on the effect it has on the individuals (National Health Service, 2015). Considering this, there is mania and depression bipolar conditions that are distinguished by the influence that they have on victims. The classification is also based on the feelings exhibited by an individual over a given period. Mania arises when one feels highly excited while during the period of depression, an individual feels less excited and self-worth (National Health Service, 2015). During such a period, the individual might be tempted to commit suicide or self-harm. The other characteristics of the mania period are a high level of energy in the body and a lot of excitement. Moreover, the decision-making process during such periods is motivated by the feeling of high activity and excitement, which is likely to result in negative implications since one rarely thinks of the consequences of his/her decisions. Notably, the extreme mood swings in an individual with bipolar disorder are most common in adults and teenagers although children are less affected by the condition and such mood swings (National Health Service, 2016a).

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Most studies have revealed that men, unlike women, are less affected by depression. This means that women are highly depressed compared to men who are most of the time maniac. Additionally, the female gender is greatly affected by the condition unlike men who suffer less. The depression period, on the other hand, is characterized by low self-esteem, a condition characterized by the feeling of low self-worth. Both types of bipolar disorder as discussed above have severe consequences for individuals, especially adults and teenagers. Therefore, there is a need to take the necessary actions to prevent the condition from extensively developing in an individual over time (National Health Service, 2016a).

Bipolar I and II are the other types of condition that is common among individuals. Bipolar I arises when one experiences a period of mania. This is most usual among the patients of 18 years old. Some of the effects of this type include low socioeconomic activity, which is common when one experiences more exciting episodes. It is also spread in both males and females. Bipolar II disorder, on the other hand, is common among those who have experienced both mania and depression. Like bipolar I, this type of bipolar disorder is common among women although men and children are also diagnosed with it. Cyclothymic disorder is another form of bipolar disorder that occurs in instances where an individual has experienced a high number of depressive and manic episodes (National Health Service, 2016b). It arises at the early stages of bipolar development and grows into bipolar I or II. These types of conditions have common effects on individuals either in depression or mania periods.

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Causes of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is caused by environmental factors, brain chemicals, and genetics. Several researchers established that a chemical imbalance in the brain is one of the major causes of the illness resulting in both depressive and manic conditions. The brain functions in humans are controlled by chemicals generally referred to as neurotransmitters. These chemicals include dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline (National Health Service, 2016b). An imbalance in the chemicals in the human brain can result in bipolar disorder. According to the National Health Service (2016), when there is a high level of noradrenaline in the brain, mania condition arises while low levels of the chemical results in periods of depression. A normal condition is therefore achieved when there is a balance in the neurotransmitters in the brain.

Moreover, bipolar disorder can also be caused by genetic factors where the disease is transmitted to family generations. A study conducted by the National Health Service (2016) shows that the family members of an individual diagnosed with bipolar disorder are likely to influence future generations. However, there is no gene that has been identified to be responsible for the disorder in humans. This implies that genetics acts only as a contributing factor and does not contribute directly to the condition. Genetic factors trigger the symptoms, thus facilitating the development of the condition in humans. Finally, environmental factors are also believed to be the cause of the bipolar disorder. These factors act as triggers and, as a result, influence the symptoms of the conditions. Another environmental factor that leads to the condition is stress in daily life. When an individual is highly stressed or experiences periods of stressful events, there are high chances that the condition can appear. Stress also influences the brain chemicals that cause the disorder (Purcell et al., 2009). Therefore, it is recommended that individuals should minimize or reduce stress to prevent disorders.

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Changing seasons have also been found to contribute to the disorder. For instance, when there is excessive sunshine, the mania and depression episodes are triggered, hence facilitating the condition. This is because of the effect on the pineal gland that releases melatonin, a brain chemical that is believed to cause bipolar disorder in humans. Illnesses can also cause bipolar disorder and enhance symptoms. For instance, the use of certain drugs especially illicit stimulants can result in both depression and mania conditions (National Health Service, 2016b). Finally, pregnancy in women is another factor that causes bipolar disorder. This arises either biologically or genetically. Additionally, it stimulates some chemicals in the brain that trigger the disorder.

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

In most instances, bipolar disorder is characterized by changes in moods. Individuals diagnosed with the condition often exhibit periods of depression and mania interchangeably. During depression episodes, one feels sad and less worthy (Purcell et al., 2009). As such, there is a risk that an individual may be tempted to commit suicide. During the period, there is a lack of energy among the individuals; therefore, memory loss arises. Additionally, the disorder during depression is characterized by a lack of interest in various activities as one feels low. It is exhibited by hallucinations and lack of appetite among the diagnosed individuals. The symptoms during mania episodes are the direct opposite of the depression period. For instance, during the manic periods, one feels very active and full of energy (National Health Service, 2016a). A feeling of self-importance does arise in such conditions. As a result, one will feel easily irritated and distracted from the activities. Commonly, people undergoing such episodes of the disorder often engage in activities with severe consequences (National Health Service, 2016b). This is because they make decisions without thinking of the consequences.

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Treatment of Bipolar Disorder

The treatment of the bipolar disorder is targeted towards minimizing the severity of mania and depression episodes. Proper treatment of the disorder shortens the period of both episodes. Examples of treatments available for bipolar disorder include the medication that is aimed towards treating the symptoms of both mania and depression when they arise. Secondly, a patient can learn to identify the symptoms and relieve them before they become severe (National Health Service, 2016b). The other form of addressing the condition is the psychological treatment where an individual is engaged in activities such as talking therapies to deal with depression. A change of lifestyle is one more way through which the condition can be treated in the individual. This involves engaging in regular body exercise especially during episodes of depression. Finally, an individual can be injected mood stabilizers during depression episodes to improve the mood and enhance body activities (Purcell et al., 2009).

Conclusion

Bipolar disorder as presented in the study occurs in two episodes – depression and mania episodes. While the depression period is characterized by a low level of activities and energy, the mania period is characterized by a high level of energy in the body that makes the person more active. The common causes of the condition include genetic, environmental, and brain chemical factors (Purcell et al., 2009). Changes in brain chemicals such as dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline trigger both conditions. Therefore, to control or treat the disorder, one has to get an injection of mood stabilizers. Consequently, it is necessary to engage in body exercises especially during episodes of depression.

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