Public health promotion in America appeared because of the health education movements. As a result, public health promotion depends on the health education in childhood, governmental role, and health care policy. Health movements are responsible for health, cleanliness, personal behavior, ill-health, mortality patterns, and environmental issues. One should include here mental health promotion that defines the well-being, cleanliness, and safety.
Public health promotion in America is defined by the population, environmental issues, epidemiological research, economic and governmental factors. Moreover, healthcare specialists gather the necessary data to analyze the rates of birth and death to find the preventive measures to increase the birth rate and decrease the death rate. This essay intends to explain the peculiarities of public health promotion in America and the factors that are crucial for the public health. The main questions addressed in this paper concern historical perspectives of public health promotion, population, environmental issues, epidemiological research, and public health issues and interventions.
Referring to the chronology, one can say that changes in the American public health system began in 1990. It was the beginning of the public health response to the causes of mortality in America. Moreover, one can say that the threats of infectious diseases, poor infant and maternal health, sanitation, nutrition, and hygiene were the driving forces of public health promotion. Besides, one should mention that at that time, public health system implemented biomedical advances and health education programs. However, even before 1990 public health promotion had existed in the forms of local health departments, governmental and non-governmental organizations that conducted trainings and surveys. Public health promotion is the process of improving health and controlling factors that define human well-being. Health promotion is defined by the healthy public policy and health education. Health promotion activities associate with the strengthening of the community participation and development of personal skills (Hawkins, Catalano, & Arthur, 2002).
Public health promotion in America includes mental health promotion. However, mental health promotion pays more attention to psychological and psycho-physiological development related to the physical health. Mental health promotion is of socio-political character. It includes such activities as: reducing discrimination and unemployment and improving housing and schooling. The members of non-government organizations, educators, and politicians can be involved in the health promotion campaign.
The most fragile population of America includes people who drink alcohol, smoke or are drug-addicted. Most of all, they suffer from the respiratory disorders, cancer, diabetes, and mental disorders. African-American people are more affected by diseases (39%) comparing with the whites (33%). 19% of Hispanic also refers to the group vulnerable to diseases. As to Asian-American people, 46% of them suffer from disorders (Herrman & Jane-Lopis, 2005). It means that ethnicity also plays a crucial role in public health. Taking into consideration age factor one should say that people of 70 years old are the most vulnerable to diseases. As a result, high rate of mortality is related to the problem of the nation’s aging (Herrman & Jane-Lopis, 2005).
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It is evident that minority public health issues are more numerous comparing with those that white and black Americans have. Most of all minority groups suffer from cancer, heart diseases, unintentional injuries, stroke, diabetes, influenza, pneumonia, and mental disorders. The main problem is that the patients have no possibility to get the necessary treatment. Consequently, the mortality rate is the highest among the minority groups.
First of all, one should say that environmental issues like pollution, global warning, the greenhouse effect, and poisoning are the restraining forces of public health promotion. It is possible to predict environmental problems and shorten their impact on the public health. Besides, such promotional activities like environmental protections, planting of trees and flowers, and rubbish recycling can be used as the basement for solving the ecological issues. Nobody denies that fact that climate changes are the results of the human activities. As a result, public health promotion in America should include the struggle against environmental problems. Building a healthy and safe surroundings is a must for the contemporary society.
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Indoor and outdoor air pollution, chemical safety, water, and sanitation are the environmental determinants of public health. In the present times, Americans try to buy their houses in the suburbs of the cities to enjoy the fresh air. However, American minority groups can not afford to live there; therefore, public health issues are more typical for them (World Federation for Mental Health, 2004). The influence of the environment on the mental and physical health isdemonstrated in the Table 1.
Table 1. The Impact Environment on the Public Health
|Influence||Mental Health||Physical Health|
|Factors of social environment||Poor quality of homes||Stresses, depression||Problems with stomach, liver, heart diseases|
|Employment||Anxiety, depression, stresses||Tiredness, heart attacks, problems with blood pressure|
|Poverty||Mental disorders, manic depression||Problems with stomach, liver, lungs, heart diseases|
|Lifestyle||Manic depression, mental illnesses||Obesity, overweighting|
|Factors of physical environment||Air pollution||Lung disease|
|Water pollution||Problems with stomach, liver|
|The quality of food||Stresses, depression||Problems with stomach, liver, overweighting, cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and obesity|
Another crucial factor for public health promotion is an epidemiological research that determines health-related events and states. Epidemiology is a way of controlling health problems and disease frequency. It is evident, that the monitoring, study, evaluation, and analysis are the methods of epidemiological research. As a result, these are the methods of public health promotion. Moreover, one can include here data use as operating of data is a way of defining the rate of diseases and mortality in the community. Epidemiological research should also involve American minority groups to give objective statistics concerning public health issues. Moreover, epidemiologists are interested in elucidating the causes of disease to define the preventive measures (Rutter, 2004).
Morbidity and mortality patterns in America are still increasing because of the lack of the well-developed healthcare system. As to life expectancy, it continues to decrease due to the dissatisfactory economic and environmental conditions. However, public health promotion in America works on the improvement of health status through the development of social, economic, and ecological factors. The US population consists of immigrants: blacks, whites, Hispanics, and Asians. As a result, mortality patterns, life expectancy, and health models are changing across the life course.
From analysis of factors related to public health promotion in America, it becomes evident that public health deals with many issues and interventions that provoke the necessity of finding the preventive measures. One can distinguish such public health problems as infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), food safety, bad habits (alcohol drinking, drug abuse, smoking), and mental disorders. One can define such public health intervention as economic (lack of money), social (poverty, poor conditions of living), political (wars, military conflicts), and environmental (water, air and land pollution). Controlling of these public health problems and interventions is a way to the improvement of the international health security.
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It is evident that American society should be ready for these threats referring to public health. The disease control and health care programs are necessary to address the infectious diseases as well as provide environmental and food-safety.
One can analyze preventive measures to public health issues according to Beattie’s model that reflects the necessary conditions for bettering public health in America. This model presupposes four stages of public health promotion:
Without doubt, this model is not only of medical, but also of legal, political, economic, and social character. Medical response to public health issues presupposes implementation of health programs that are necessary for bettering policy, promoting healthy lifestyle, and decreasing of the disease rate. Moreover, health care governmental and non-governmental organizations insist on the development of health-conscious children through health lessons at school. Another way of reacting to public health issues includes health promotion through mass media, community events, and advertisement campaigns. The American government is also ready to implement regulations and laws concerning health promotion (Jane-Lopis, Barry, Hosman, & Patel, 2005).
In conclusion, it is necessary to say that public health promotion is the basement of physiological and psychological well-being of the community. The most efficient model of public health promotion is Beattie’s model. Health education strategies protecting and promoting optimal physical and mental health are the complex of practices, laws, regulations, and events for the organization of pro-health campaigns. The American public health system began to function in 1990 as a response to the high mortality rate in America.
Alcohol and drug addicted as well as people who smoke comprise the most fragile group of the American population. Most of all, they suffer from respiratory and mental disorders, cancer, and diabetes. African-American and Asian-American people are the most affected by public health issues in America. Such environmental problems as pollution, global warning, the greenhouse effect, poisoning are the restraining forces of public health promotion. It is possible to predict environmental issues and shorten their influence on the public health. For instance, epidemiology is a way of controlling health problems and disease frequency. It is evident, that the monitoring, study, evaluation, and analysis are the primary methods of epidemiological research and public health promotion. Public health problems include infections, HIV, food safety, bad habits , and mental disorders. Public health interventions are economic, social, political, and environmental.