Considering the increase in the incidence of diabetes type II among adolescents and youth, it is crucial to focus on the new efficient intervention practices and management programs. In recent decades, the threats of acquisition of the diabetes type II were relatively low, especially among the young generation. However, the new socio-economic conditions and ecological environment raise the chances of incidence and require implementing qualitative changes in the system of diabetes treatment and management. Thus, in the article Evidence-based behavioral interventions to promote diabetes management in children, adolescents, and families, the authors point to the gap existing between the actual management of diabetes type II and consideration of the psychological and mental therapies and theories in the solution of this problem (Hilliard, M. E., Powell, P. W., & Anderson, B. J., 2016). The paper aims to provide the review of the article, consider the key statements of the authors regarding the behavioral interventions in the diabetes type II management, and discuss the outcomes of such methods on the well-being of adolescents and youth.
The increase in incidence with diabetes type II is a common problem of adolescents and adults with low socio-economic backgrounds and from ethnic or racial minorities. Usually, chances of incidence of this disease are higher among those individuals who have first-degree relatives diagnosed with the same illness, experience overweight or obesity or come from the less fortunate classes of the society (Hilliard, Powell, & Anderson, 2016). Apparently, their chances of incidence increase due to the lack of appropriate education regarding diabetes and awareness of the disease as well as the methods of its prevention. Moreover, it means that adolescents and youth from the risk group cannot easily access the required medication and relevant management programs. Thereby, the application of the behavioral interventions in diabetes type II management in adolescents and youth may appear a productive solution in the management of diabetes type II among people of the risk group.
Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) Study aimed at identifying the most effective management techniques for the treatment of diabetes type II (TODAY Study Group, 2014). This study considered the efficiency of two different approaches to diabetes type II management among young people. It includes metformin monotherapy and metformin plus the lifestyle and behavioral interventions accompanied by the family training and special assistance aimed at the increase of family awareness of the disease and ways of its handling (Hilliard, Powell, & Anderson, 2016). The results of this study prove that the metformin monotherapy appears to be an effective tool for the glycemic control only in the half of cases (Hilliard, Powell, & Anderson, 2016). Moreover, this approach does not assist in focusing on the side effects and complications of the diabetes type II, such as hypertension, microalbuminuria, retinopathy, and threats of the myocardial problems and diseases (Hilliard, Powell, & Anderson, 2016). Consequently, the monotherapy cannot satisfy the complex attitude to the diabetes type II management, since it does not provide the needed tools and means for the diverse control and measurement of disease complications.
Conversely, the involvement of the behavioral interventions and family training appeared to be a more fruitful and productive way of diabetes type II management in adolescents and youth, in comparison to the monotherapy (Hilliard, Powell, & Anderson, 2016). For example, it assisted the target patients in controlling their glycemic levels on a regular basis, taking the medication on time and leading the healthier way of life (Hilliard, Powell, & Anderson, 2016). However, even its impact is not sufficient for the full coverage of the diabetes-related health problems and complications caused by the complicated nature of the disease and approaches to its treatment (Hilliard, Powell, & Anderson, 2016). Nevertheless, the authors suggest that behavioral techniques and interventions should be considered as an integral part of the diabetes type II management among adolescents and young people.
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The behavioral interventions may exist in a variety of forms, and their choice highly depends on the social, cultural, ethnic/racial, health-related, and family environment of adolescents and youth affected by diabetes type II. The researchers admit that behavioral interventions do not always work appropriately due to a wide range of reasons. For example, young people resist therapy because of the lack of awareness of the disease and a low level of education (Hilliard, Powell, & Anderson, 2016). Second, the behavioral interventions may fail in case the conventional approaches do not work because of the individual resistance of insulin, obesity, overweight or other health-related problems (Hilliard, Powell, & Anderson, 2016). Finally, if the family environment does not provide sufficient support and assistance to the patients, the behavioral and psychological interventions provide no noticeable effects and outcomes (Marrero et al., 2013). Thus, the behavioral interventions suggest direct cooperation with the conventional techniques and education of families regarding the peculiarities of the disease and attitudes towards it in the long-run perspective.
The authors state that different kinds of behavioral interventions may be implemented in case of management of the disease among adolescents and youth. These methods include social cognitive theory, family system theory, social-ecological model, skills training programs, different types of family interventions, and multisystem approach (Hilliard, Powell, & Anderson, 2016). All of these methods emphasize the importance of family-related interventions and management of diabetes in the social context. In particular, the implementation of these techniques allows patients developing an optimistic attitude to their future, adequate evaluating their health conditions and take sufficient care of their well-being. In their turn, such changes result in the systematic control over the disease and fulfillment of the prescribed recipes and procedures. Besides, the practical recommendations include the behavioral changes in the lifestyle, eating and sleeping patterns, shifts in the amounts of physical activities, etc. (Christie, & Channon, 2014). Overall, there are many ways of implementing behavioral interventions for diabetes type II management.
To conclude, the article discusses the role of behavioral interventions and psychological theories in the management of diabetes type II among adolescents and adults. The authors state that an effective combination of the conventional and behavioral techniques strongly facilitates the process of management and eliminates the complications caused by the disease. Therefore, modern healthcare should consider the application of the behavioral interventions into the management of diabetes type II.
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