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Leadership Theory and Its Practice

Free Psychology Essays

Value-based Leadership Theory

In a progressing organization, there has to be the core activities that have to be made and the organization should be able to manage and direct them without any failure. If any occurs, then it should be followed and corrected in a manner that will not confuse the schedule. Business value is anything that contributes to an organization’s stated primary goal, e.g. increasing or protecting revenue, reducing/avoiding costs, improving service, meeting regulatory obligations, achieving market strategy, and developing staff. Organization’s stated primary goals presuppose that all organizations are required to clearly articulate the statement on their existence and how they describe the success of all the organizations (i.e. the mission, goal statement, and vision). Moreover, all that is claimed to be business value is required to be attributable to organizations, thus stating the primary goal. If a project does not deliver something that contributes toward one of those goals, it does not have a sound business case (Haines, 2007). We are going to discuss the leadership styles and the types of leaders we have in our communities (Avolio & Gardner, 2005).

Values are central in the organization, and they are the control units in the organization. They try to explain the ways in which leaders are capable of managing and leading organizations to achieve excellent activities like the beginning and mounting of victorious commercial firms, business turnarounds in the face of irresistible competition, armed victories in the eyes of the forces in the high rank, when it comes to the management of flourishing social arrangements, from the colonial period movements, or the political tyranny. There is also an explanation to how certain levels of admirers’ motivation, respect, dedication, trust, loyalty, commitment, admiration, and performance are achieved by certain leaders, hence achieving some surprising levels.

The earlier theories have dependent variables that are followers’ satisfaction, expectation, and normal performance levels. These dependent variables of the recent theories are inclusive of a variety of effects such as the followers’ motivational and emotional arousal, followers’ emotional attachment to leaders, and therefore this enhances the values of the followers according to the mission and visions that the leaders have come up with as well as the followers’ significant values. The latest theories address the fact that previous theories have not emphasized. There are conditions that have a magnificent effect on the followers, and these conditions could include such things as identification with the leader’s mission and vision, follower’s efficacy, and also perceptions of self-worth (Avolio & Gardner, 2005). The earlier theories characterize the leader behavior that is instrumental to the followers, and they are instrumental to the performance of the followers and the support. They are referred to as person- and task-oriented leader behavior (House, 1971). On the contrary, most of the latest theories stress the fact that most values that have been infused of late in the organizations are emotion arousing, inspirational, and symbolic. This is made a success through the leader’s behavior.

The theories that were there earlier take various attitudes to the desires, values, opinions, and preferences of the followers. The latest theories show that the leaders have a substantial role to play in the value of a particular organization. Therefore, the leaders are expected to ensure that these values are infused into the followers and that they transform the individuals and the organization as well. This therefore appeals to ideological emotions and values of the followers.

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McClelland (1975) formulated a theory that had an intention to explain effectiveness of the leader, which performs a function of combining specific motives and which is referred to as Leader Motive Profile. The theory acts as a complement to other theories. This is evidenced by various researches that have been conducted previously since the 1980’s. It is described below

This theory is meant to incorporate the newer theories. It is defined as a theory that is aimed at creating a relationship between the follower and the leader. The relationship is not strictly between one follower and a leader, but it could also go all the way to more than one follower. It is based on the ideological values that are internalized by the follower and are introduced by the leader. This leads to identification of the follower to these values. The values that are termed as ideological are those values that are concerned with what is right or wrong. Therefore, the values are determined according to the morals of a society and by the effect on others that is brought out by the values. It could concern fairness, honesty, and justice, and also how the leader is obliged to meet the customers, followers, or even the organization’s stakeholders at large. This value-based theory explains in details what is meant under being a qualifying leader. This may be the remarkably strong recognition of the team supporting the leader, the combined and communal vision supported by the leader, the inner or internalized obligation to the leader and to the collective, stimulation of devotees’ motives that are related to the achievement of the combined vision, and followers’ motivation to make important sacrifices and elongate a crack above and away from the call of duty.

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The theory based on leadership values has been chosen to describe an actual meaning of the type of management that should be in a real organization setting. The theory of 1976 stating leadership is based on charismatic character is a precursor of the theory of leadership based on values. It has been preferred because it is popular in high-hand undertone. Charisma can be defined as the act of expressing impressions of people who are attractive, amicable, sexually attractive, and flamboyant. On the contrary, leadership that is based on the values is intended to express the intention of the leader to arouse the follower’s values that have been inactive and as such to cause new values to be activated and hence internalized. For this to happen, a conducive environment is needed, such as an emotion-free, quiet, or even more emotionally expressive environment. There are leaders who have exploited an emotionally expressive manner, for instance, Martin Luther King, John F. Kennedy, Winston Churchill, and Lee Iacocca. Mother Teresa, Mahatma Ghandi, and Nelson Mandela are examples of those leaders who have communicated in a less emotionally expressive manner. This therefore helps an individual realize that it is possible to provide any type of conducive environment.

In this section, the leadership that is based on values is discussed at length. There is enough evidence to show that this theory has an essential effect on any organization’s performance. The evidence to support this includes two studies reported by Waldman and his associates. They are about value-based leader’s behavior as an antecedent to organizational profitability. According to the research, the profitability of the firm was affected positively by the values that were formulated by the leaders. It therefore accounted for 15 to 25 percent. This research controlled the profitability of the firm, the firm size, and executive turbulence.

The leaders infuse their collectives with their values by making clear their vision to the followers who are deemed to have a moral right. Ideological values are termed as values that are intrinsically satisfying in a moral way. The end values are also termed as the ones that cannot be exchanged for other values unlike the pragmatic values. The ideological values are deeply held values as well as followers’ emotions.

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According to value-based theories in leadership, visions that are articulated by this kind of leaders are reliable with combined followers’ identity, and are motivationally and emotionally arousing. Motivational and emotional provocation induces followers’ classification with the cooperative vision and the joint results in the enhancement of followers’ self-esteem and self-efficacy and has influential motivational belongings on followers and on overall organizational performance.

Government and manufacturing organizations’ leaders conduct vision actualization with the aim of improving their business. Such visions can never be grandiose. Dazzling leaders’ vision in the work, which is ordinary, has the ability to embrace ideological values both as a rewarding work and challenging environment, freedom from rule and supervision, which is highly controlling, and a working environment, which is rewarding. Such visions also have the ability to embrace values such as freedom from supervision and rules, which is highly controlling, as well as opportunities of professional development, significant constituencies’ returns, which are fair, integrity and craftsmanship, fairness, high quality products and services, respect for clients, members, or customers of the organization, and the environment where the organization carries out its operations. Furthermore, whether conception is solely done by the leader, by the followers in a joint manner, or by members articulating the ideological vision beyond duty call, synergy is exceptionally important among collective members of an organization.

Followers’ trust, self-sacrifice, and respect are inspired by value identification that is born by visions of the leader. Apart from that, there is a demonstration of determination and self-sacrifice by the leader, and this happens in organization’s interests as well as according to the vision of the organization. As per these identifications, leaders who are value-based use identification of followers’ values, trust, and respect accorded to them to motivate a high performance and a mission sense as they quest the vision, which is collective, and finally introduce changes in the organization. The act of bringing latent values to a conscious level occurs owing to the vision that value-based leaders articulate. There are a number of individuals who act like leaders as they change values to remind the ones of their leaders. There is a need to formulate visions that value-based leaders articulate, and this should be done by one leader. Conception of this collective vision is done by collective members or leaders who come after a current leader. At that point, vision perpetration is performed by the leader and at the same time the leader continuously communicates the vision while institutionalizing the vision. Vision institutionalization is prepared through the formation as well as maintenance of means of institutions, which include policies, strategies, norms, ceremonies, symbols, and rituals. Alternatively, formulation of organizational visions may be done by the leader and members of the organization. They can work together to ensure that there is a successful formulation.

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Effects of articulation on ideological values can be described as profound. Members of the organization have the knowledge of ideological values, which are shared between themselves and the leaders. There is a development of collective cohesion, which is of high level, and this happens after the identification of members with the collective vision. There is enhancement of collaborative interaction among members of the organization. Collective efficacy is experienced by individuals. In addition, individuals exhibit high self-esteem and this is due to support from leaders who express confidence that members have the capacity to ensure that there is attainment of the vision. Apart from that, vision accomplishment of relevant motives is aroused. Members of the organization assess their worth and judge it on the basis of their vision attainment as well as collective contribution. The theory of equity stipulates that when there is a perception by individuals that their contribution ratio to a personal reward is equal to that reward of other individuals, there is a feeling that treatment accorded is fair. In situations when there is a feeling of unfairness, there emerge de-motivation, resentment, and unwillingness to give support. Any influence made by the leader in such circumstances will be resisted by the followers. The end result is members who are strongly internalized and committed. In addition, members will have intrinsic motivation that will enable them to have the will to contribute to the vision of the organization. There is willingness of the members to offer support to changes that the top management introduces, including technological, structural, and strategic changes. Such changes lead to an organizational culture that is characterized by teamwork-oriented values while at the same time meeting clients’, customers’, constituents’, and competitive needs. Owing to this, there is a reduction of intra-organizational conflicts as well as a team effort of high degree, which is also effective. There is an effort expedition by members and this effort is far above as well as beyond what the duty calls for. There is a sacrifice of self-interests by members in favor of organization’s interests. Owing to this, there is a likelihood of collective vision alignment with the organizational culture, individual motivation, structure, and strategies.

According to Mischel (1973), situation’s psychological strength influences the extent to which disposition of individual, for example, personality traits and motives are behaviorally expressed. Situations are said to be strong if behavior norms are strong; expectations, which are clear regarding the behavior, are to be rewarded as well as an incentive for specific behavioral type is strong. As per this argument, there is constraining of the tendencies of motivation as well as personality in situations, which are strong. Owing to this, rules, norms, policies as well as procedures govern highly formalized organizations. The tendency of members of an organization to express disposal becomes minimal.

Theoretically, in strongly psychological situations, the motives of the leaders influence their behavior in a minimal manner. Apart from that, the behavior of the leader has a smaller impact on the outcome of the organization and the subordinates as compared to weak psychological situations. A process of reinforcing is prone to occur in a situation where members of the organization have increased confidence in as well as respect for the leader and at the same time for each other. The end result is organizational success. Owing to this, there is further reinforcement of initial confidence. There is consistence of such effects with the romanticized leader. The leader gains more confidence and, owing to this, he/she is able to have more influence. The leader is thus able to increase organization’s performance further. This is theoretical scenario of “ideal type”.

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Taking into account all that is said and done, everything does not really depend on the value-based leadership. It is therefore expected that followers are motivated by their identification to the leaders. This is made possible by shared internal values, which are motivational factors for the followers. In the process, leaders express their vision and missions and incorporate them into the followers. There is a possibility that they can introduce their own strategies and hence act to their own interests, which could work to the detriment of the organization. There are also high chances that leaders may express their selfish benefits instead of values. These selfish values could include persecution, racism, dishonesty, ethnicity, and illegal or unfair competitive practices. Whatever the expression of values by the leaders is, it still stands that the leadership based on values improves the organization’s performance and that the relationship between the leader and the follower is improved to a large extent.

Types of Leadership

There are several types of leadership. This shows how leading people or organizations can achieve the set values and objectives planned by the management in different ways. This includes the following types. Charismatic leadership is a type of leadership, which mainly bases its functions on the normal state of the organization. This requires extraordinary individuals for them to be perfected. An ordinary person will not make it in both controlling and directing the modules.

Full-range leadership is divided into two subtypes, which are transformational and transactional leadership types. According to Bernard Bass, transformational leadership is meant for researchers and people who are willing to restructure the workplace. These people are said to be motivators of the organizations and they happen to reshuffle the structure of organizations, and they are scheduled to do this by their duties. Transactional type differs from the transformational one, although this difference is not outlined. Transformational one is said to be of more importance than the transactional type. Transformational leadership is extensively discussed by Nancy Roberts to show how widely it has been used.

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Strategic leadership exploits strategy as a term often used by big companies. Strategy promotes policy context that allows self-management and governmental management. This is usually associated with the notion of planning for the future or predicting what the future should hold for the organization. The technique applied is the use of the SWOT analysis, which entails the strengths, opportunities, weaknesses, and threats. The combination of the factors means that leaders act in bound rather than open-ended rational conditions and they must satisfy rather than maximize.

Distributive leadership is when an individual concentrates on what the management is doing and on the entire community. Gibbs’ summary states that the work of the communities done by the management will contribute more than the work done by a single person. It encourages team work. The bulk of the material listed for reading provides case studies of distributed formations or explores the dynamics of distribution. Other descriptive relations amongst units of more than two people include an early and particularly thorough study by Hodgson. This supports the work of the top managers who are in control of the departments (House, 1971).

Complexity leadership has introduced a new way of doing things in terms of controlling and guiding. This theory does not focus on the individual performance; groups are made according to the responsibility assigned to each person. For the practice of leadership, attention shifts to how organizational interactions are to be managed, regulated and how they influence ways that facilitate organizational performance and effectiveness. As such, complex leadership views and traditional notions of leadership have limited applicability as contemporary organizational demands are for nimble addictiveness, learning, and innovation in response to rapidly changing environments. Complexity leadership appears broadly compatible with distributed views of leadership where interactive dynamics, distributed knowledge, and intelligence coordinate all processes (Marion and Uhl-bien 2001). Furthermore, new methodological possibilities for research and understanding are opened up through simulation and computational modeling of complex processes (House, 1971).

The important aspects of leadership are mainly concerned with gender and whether the leadership styles of men and women are different. Thereafter, there are influential and early discussions about gender and style in a business context by Schwartz, 1989 and Rosener, 1990s. Women are considered to be the same as men. They are imposed with work more so as to meet the goals. Another aspect of the leadership style is the extent of their consequences. The findings of different authors discuss the impact of the consequences. The findings of De Roaches, 1994 concern the depth of penetration of styles in the organizational cultures. The consultancy work is considered as the key factor of the management system of organizations. Another aspect of styles is concerned with the extent to which these comprise fixed and enduring sets of attributes or are amenable to change. Styles can be managed differently in organizations depending on how they have been perceived by managers. It is suggested that rather than seeing individuals as embodying particular sets of style attributes, the adaptive behavior is increasingly demanded of organizational leaders and it requires from them to be able to embody the entire range of behaviors, which may have previously been disaggregated into sets of individual styles (House, 1971).

Selection and Induction of Leaders

Being a leader is sometimes critical in daily life. Leaders can be chosen manually by the organization since their leadership skills cannot be wasted by letting them down. Recruitment of leaders is a wide area in every organization, and it has to be considered as a key factor for the organization to move on swiftly. There are several stages that organizations need to go through before mentioning their leaders. According to Silverman and Jones (1976), organizational work shows that there are regular procedures and the selectors are very experienced people, not the ones who have no skills of choosing the best out of employers. The procedure entails how this people can audit their attributes and consider traits. They can undertake a diagnostic assessment of leaders’ skills and capacities. The assessment centers are set aside, and the historical background is also set separately with the conditions attached to it. The interview procedures are organized, after which the management is ready to pick on the leaders. Since the interviews carry more weight in terms of individuals’ character, people involved in selection are left to discuss the members’ code of behavior in general. The final statements are then given out to the public for their comments and achievements.

The induction cycle comes in when the newly elected leader is in a position to work and meet the required and desired goals of the employees and the general public. The new leader faces several challenges, and he/she has to take control of them before the pubic handles them. He/she confronts the shadow or legacy left by the forerunner. It is so difficult to deal with such a situation since the successor will always want to do things that are unique and that they may be far from the values of the organization. Newly appointed leaders will want to express their competitiveness in the first years. That is why, being a leader is represented not simply by word of mouth, but by deeds and how these ideas are planned to enable each individual to achieve the desired goals.


The values used in an organization are a source of the support for the growth and development. The types of leadership that are used in the organization are made to control the management of the organization. The humans will be likely goal-oriented and pragmatic, but they are also self-expressive. According to the human characters, people not only have an instrumental calculative as assumed, but also have aesthetic values, expressions of feelings, and self-concepts. People are entitled and subjected to what they do to describe themselves. Furthermore, by doing these things, they will establish and affirm their identity sometimes even when their behaviors do not serve the worldly or practical self-interests. People are provoked to sustain and improve their widespread self-worth and self-efficiency. Moreover, the generalization of self-efficacy is based on the ability to always cope with the environment and to control power and competence. Self-worth relies on the sense of morality and virtue and it is stranded in norms and principles concerning conduct.

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