Psychological disorders are also referred to as mental disorders. They are behavioral or psychological pattern symptoms that affect several areas of one’s life. Such symptoms may cause distress to persons experiencing them. The following is a list of psychological disorders that affect us in our daily lives. They include developmental disorders, dissociative disorders, cognitive disorders, associative disorders, anxiety disorders, adjustment disorders, factitious disorders, and mood disorders
In this case, I will look at cognitive orders as a major classification of psychological disorders. Cognitive disorder can be defined as psychological problems which affect memory, learning, and problem solving. Cognitive disorders have been recognized as an unavoidable problem of aging. With old age, these memory disorders are very common. However, a sharp lapse in the short-term memory can be more than the usual forgetfulness. This can be a symptom of cognitive impairment. In most cases, people with this problem tend to retain reasoning skills and critical thinking but frequently experience a short-term memory lapse. In such conditions, the affected individual may have troubles in remembering people’s names or flows of conversations. Increased tendency of misplacing things and over-reliance on calendars, lists or notes are the primary symptoms of the disorder.
Cognitive disorders can be treated in three major ways, namely: compensatory strategies, use of remedy techniques, and adaptive approaches. Many experts agree that cognitive rehabilitation programs apply techniques from each approach. A professional in mental problems such as a psychologist, neuropsychologist or an occupational therapist can make the determination on the best ways to treat cognitive disorders (Bodin, 2006). Psychologist would create a treatment program that delineates the methods to be applied to attain certain goals during the rehabilitation processes. The approaches used depend on the individual’s relative strengths or weaknesses.
Anxiety disorders are disorders which affect individuals such that they respond to certain situations or objects with dread and fear. The condition is also characterized by nervousness or physical signs of anxiety such as sweating and increased heartbeat. Mood disorders are also known as affective disorders. They include persistent feeling of sadness or periods when an individual feels over-excited. This is characterized by fluctuations of extreme sadness to extreme happiness.
Somatoform disorders are situations whereby the affected person experiences physical signs of illness even though professional psychologists cannot find any medical cause of the symptoms. This type of disorder is also referred to as psychosomatic disorder (Bodin, 2006). Examples include abnormal illness without cause and stress that is accompanied with frustrations.
Abnormal behaviors can be defined as any behavior that deviates from the central tendencies like the mean (Bodin, 2006). For instance, if every person in the community is smoking, then this would be considered an abnormal behavior. It is also the deviation from socio-cultural norms of a place or a society. An example of this is when a person is feeling comfortable with a situation which other people do not consider as proper.
In psychoanalytic perception, we would explain the mental disturbances of past family experiences in certain stages of development (Bodin, 2006). In this case, we look at Freud as a starting point and then the defense mechanisms that are also available. Examples here include repressed memories and regression.
Behavioral perception is not the kind of approach that can be used to explain psychological disorders although it is sometimes used to treat them. This perception basically looks at the”‘black box theory” where the response comes out. It views the behavior itself as the problem.
Humanistic perspective of abnormality pays attention to the factors which may limit one’s ability from meeting his/her potentials. These factors are seen as the causes of the disorders. On the other hand, cognitive perception involves a reductionist viewing of the actual mechanisms taking place within the brain as though the brain is a computer (Bodin, 2006). This kind of perception is mainly researched and used in fields of the social science.
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