The experiment has an independent variable, that is achievement goal orientation, and the dependent variable is the plagiarism rates. It was used to find out if there are any differences among the population means. Goal orientations are reasons for students to engage in achievement-directed behavior and take two angles, namely performance and mastery goal orientation. A performance goal focuses on the purpose of engaging in achievement behaviors for demonstrating their ability and recognition. A mastery goal is described as a focus on learning, skill development, creativity, and understanding (Songsriwittaya et al. 2009).
In this research article, the purpose was to identify the Stamford University students’ attitudes and opinions regarding plagiarism and academic misconduct. It entailed use of an internet based survey system, composed of ‘yes’ and ‘no’ questions and Like-type rating scales. This study combines both qualitative and quantitative nature, since it examines attitudes and the data placed in a frequency count and analyzed quantitatively. The chi-square analysis was used to generate an a probability figure to help make decisions on whether to reject or retain a null hypothesis by giving possibilities about frequencies about difference between the attitudes of the students.
The chi-square distribution is a theoretical distribution with degrees of freedom. The larger is the number of degrees of freedom, the more the changes in the shape of the distribution are. It also has a critical value. For this research, the levels of freedom were 4 and a confidence interval level of 0.05 or 95 %. The independent variable was student’s attitudes, while the dependent variable was plagiarism and academic misconduct. A chi-square can be used to determine if the variables are independent.
When the variables are independent, it means there is no relationship between the two, and this involves rejecting the null hypothesis. The chi square, as used in the article, is to test the independence between variables. The first test is whether there is a relationship between cheating in the exam previously and academic classifications. The research revealed that the likelihood ratio using chi-square(2=2.721, df=4, p=0.61) was not significant and that the majority of all educational classifications indicated that they had not previously cheated on a test/exam. The succeeding criterion is whether there is a relationship between partial or whole submission of someone else’s work and academic misconduct. The research exposed that the probability ratio was not noteworthy using chi-square (not important at the 0.05 alpha stage (?2=5.371, df=4, p=0.25) and that the preponderance of the students indicated that it is a scholastic misconduct if one submits a document written by someone else, either in part or whole.
The second experiment is whether there is a relationship between opinions regarding the satisfactoriness of replication/pasting passages from the internet into one’s assignments and citing the source. The responses to the question indicated that most respondents reject the acceptability of this action. The likelihood ratio was also not significant at the 0.05 alpha level (?2=1.191, do=4, p=0.89). The gap that this research aims to fill is to offer an insight on how students have reached at the ending that plagiarism and academic misconduct is not a part of cheating by scrutinizing students’attitudes toward plagiarism.
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In this research article, the purpose was to identify the university professors’ definitions of plagiarism, knowledge and attitudes, as well as individual strategies for detection and prevention of plagiarism in college coursework. The research is purely qualitative in nature, as it adopts an exploratory approach and qualitative data collection method.
The qualitative article includes a “collection of interpretive techniques which seek to describe, decode, translate and otherwise come to terms with the meaning, not the frequency, of certain more or less naturally occurring phenomena in the academic world” (Ryan et al. 2011). It aims to achieve an in-depth understanding of plagiarism’s occurrence. The study has been designed to tell us how and why plagiarism is a problem, as well as various perceptions towards it. The analysis has been done using content analysis of written or recorded materials drawn from personal expressions by participants and behavioral observations. The research showed varied and different responses and reactions towards plagiarism. The gap, which this study aims to fill is to define the current state regarding plagiarism and finding solutions to it from the university fraternity as a way of cross-disciplinary cooperation given its transversal presence.
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In a qualitative approach, the focus of the research is to understand and interpret, while in quantitative, it is to describe, explain and predict. The researcher involvement in qualitative method is high, researcher is participant or catalyst, while in quantitative it is limited, and controlled to prevent bias. In qualitative approach, the research purpose is in-depth understanding and theory building, while, in quantitative, it involves describing or predicting: build and test theory. The sample design for qualitative is non-probabilistic and purposive, while for quantitative it is probabilistic. The research design in qualitative may evolve or adjust during the course of the period.
Qualitative approach uses multiple methods simultaneously or sequentially. Consistency is not expected and involves longitudinal approach. In quantitative method, the research design is determined before commencing the project. It uses a single method or mixed methods. Consistency is critical and involves either a cross-sectional or a longitudinal approach. In qualitative, the participant preparation requires pre-tasking, while, in quantitative, no preparation is desired to avoid biasing the participant. Data type, preparation and analysis in qualitative includes verbal or pictorial descriptions and human analysis, following computer or human coding. In quantitative, it includes verbal descriptions reduced to numerical codes for computerized analysis. The comments given by the writer of the articles do not form the basis for a literature review, since they are summaries of the three articles.