Sociology of Crime and Violence
Why do the Proponents of the Nonintervention Model View Rehabilitation and Due Process With Suspicion?
There is a belief among certain individuals that there should be minimal involvement of the justice system, and those who have been declared guilty of an offence. Such people have their own reasons which are based majorly on suspicion about these systems. The first one is that there is usually no guarantee for the people on the defense side that they are 100% guilty. Yet everyone who goes through the system of justice is often treated with discrimination. At times, it might even be difficult to secure employment. Public display of individuals during prosecution is not what any person who is sane would wish to experience.
What do Advocates of the Nonintervention Model Advocate?
The advocates of nonintervention model prefer a process that does not emphasize branding the individuals about certain things they did. In this way, they would face less discrimination on release or at the end of their cases. Emphasis should not be put on how antisocial these individuals are, but rather on the best corrective measures. However, there is a certain group of people who ought to be excluded from this treatment due to their character.
Explain the Differences in Prison Life as Experienced by Male and Female Inmates
Male and female inmates go through different experience during their prison time. The first aspect that must be noted is a number of inmates. There are usually more male inmates as compared to female inmates in any facility. The rate of attempts by the inmate’s on their own lives is more in the female facilities as compared to those for men. Inmates in female facilities have groups that resemble families, and which they use to support each other emotionally unlike the opposite gender. The males instead have the equivalent of teams which they use to achieve certain objectives. The male have other groupings in the prisons whose basis is an inmate’s race or where his origin.
Female inmates are helpful to their colleagues in case of a problem which rarely happens for the male inmates. Male inmates like to give the impression they are tough and aggressive to others and staff that they view as the cause of their problems. Finally, female inmates appreciate programs meant for their rehabilitation while the male inmates prefer to prove that they are defiant, and do not need such programs for their own good.
How Violence Present in the Media Programs Contributes to Aggression in Society
There is a lot of violent content in media in today’s world. Such content has some role to play in the promotion of both long-term and short-term aggression in the society. Media acts as a form of entertainment; it also educates and teaches individuals. Violence used in these means of entertainment and education are imitated by people who are either not in their right mental state or are below the right age. Few parents and guardians adhere to the age restrictions in any of these movies and programs. In this way, many young people who try out the form of aggression they see in the media on the people around them when provoked, can be found. The number of people terminating their lives has increased as a result of the persuasion of the media. It makes this very grave idea appear to be quite minor or a trend and a means of escaping any challenges a person encounters.
Various Elements of Family Relations and How They Influence Criminality
There are many elements in the relationships that can be found in a family. The first is the relationship between the parents. The second is the relation between children. Then the manner in which the children relate to their parents. These three are important aspects that shape the behavior of a child in the society. The way that the parents relate to one another is important in determining how their children react to certain situations. If there is some form of violence in this relationship, then there is a very good probability that the children would also choose such behavior. The other is the relationship of the parents and in particular the father to the children. In many homes, the male who heads the family acts as a role model and maintains discipline in the home. Thus in most homes where the father is rarely around or who goes away from his responsibilities, the children, especially boys, develop behavior that is aggressive and violent.
Identification and Description of the Principles of Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory
Edwin Sutherland came up with a theory which had the basis of science and which shared some properties with others that were scientific in nature. His intention was pointing out the criminals from the community irrespective of their skin color or social class. Sutherland first came up with this theory in 1939. It was completed in 1947 in a book written by Sutherland on the same subject. This theory was the pioneer in the change of direction in the way that criminologists perceived this subject. What is identified as important in this theory is the influence from people in the social circles of the person who develops criminal behavior. Sutherland’s differential theory has nine principles. The tendency to commit a crime is learned. This implies that no one is born with this trait.
A person makes a decision to develop this tendency and the blame cannot be placed in their genetic makeup or fate. This learning is as a result of interacting with others during communication. The same way that people are integrated into life is how people who develop criminal behavior are introduced to this trait. Examples of the people who can teach others this trait are immediate family members for example the father, mother or even sibling. Association in other groups where people associate more closely could also result in an individual learning this behavior. The risk of becoming a criminal is much greater if the learner is of a young age as compared to when they are older. The means of communication can either be verbal or through the use of signs. Most of the people who act as teachers in this case are closely related to those who learn this behavior. Thus, media plays a very minimal role in promoting criminal behavior. All aspects of criminal behavior are learnt, and none is inherited. There are many ways through which criminals learn this behavior. They include forceful participation and even enticement to join a particular group.
The intentions of the people who commit crime can be found from the laws of the country on that crime. People can only be described as lawless in case the definitions that fit breaking the law are more than those that do not pertain to the subject. There is a variation in many aspects, for example, in terms of frequency, amount of time taken, level of importance and the strength. Priority is crucial as it influences the selection, while how strong it is can be as a result of the prestige from where the criminal behavior originates. The learning of criminal behavior is similar to any other process of acquiring new knowledge and utilizing all the methods a learner accesses. The engagement in unlawful behavior is only a way of showing what a person needs and sees as important. However, they do not explain them.
Example of a Crime and the Use of Sutherland’s Theory in Explaining
Taking into account practical example of a crime, this essay will look at sexual assault. Apart from the emotional aspect of this crime, those who engage in it learn it from people around them. Usually there is some form of communication between this learner and the person he learns from. The nature of the crime is intimate, so this communication is either secret or occurs through the use of gestures. The leaner eventually concludes that there is a shortcut to getting what they want. As time passes by, they begin to develop new techniques in committing this crime. Since successful prosecution of this crime is not easy, most of them avoid punishment, and they begin to view it as a source of prestige. This explains why many sexual offenders have a record of doing similar crime before.