Three Distinct Periods in China
Like every other community in the world, China has a long history, which will be analyzed in the current paper. The history of China can be divided into three distinct historical periods, which had different ways of addressing social problems. There are different activities that occur in different periods of history. Therefore, the environments under which they operate have been different. Also, the leaders in these historical periods were only few. It means that they were governed differently. Last, but most important, with reference to the addressing of issues, is the different cultures in the different historical periods. These led to the differences in the addressing of issues, such as crimes.
The history of China can be divided into three distinct periods. These include Confucius’ China, Mao Zedong’s China and Deng Xiao Ping’s China. Therefore, these periods are characterized by the leadership of different personalities. Each of the three periods had their own way of carrying out activities and dealing with important issues that arose. However, it is vital to note that these periods had a lot of similarities. In fact, the changes in the culture of people are extremely gradual. Therefore, different periods in history, especially ones that are adjacent, are prone to exhibit numerous similarities, with reference to addressing of issues.
Maintaining Social Order and Controlling Crime
The maintenance of social order in China was carried out differently in three periods. Therefore, it can be agreed that this was a matter that the leaders of the three periods considered with great importance. However, the way in which the matter was dealt with was extremely different for the three. In Confucius’ China, there was the Confucian philosophy of the maintenance of social order through legalist emphasis on confided law, criminal sanction and moral education. It was the state ideology of the Han dynasty (Waley, 1989). These laws mainly focused on humanism. It involved the use of logic in problem solving, such as punishing of criminals. This means that it was not a system that focused on things like belief in afterlife and gods. It relied on the fact that human beings can be taught, made better and perfected. Some of the ethical concepts in this philosophy included ren, yi and li (Bakken, 2005).
Mao Zedong’s China was an extremely different one from the above mentioned. Mao Zedong was a leader that was worshipped by the people in his early life. This was due to the brilliance that he exhibited at the time in his life. However, there came a time when his attitude changed. This is where he had no respect for any of the existing laws. Instead, he made the laws himself. Therefore, he could not let anyone challenge him or claim that he was wrong on anything. He destroyed and challenged most of the traditional Chinese cultures. Although he gave women the same rights as men, he destroyed the traditional value of a Chinese woman. During this period in the history of China, there was no definite way in which issues concerning maintenance of order were addressed (Gay, 2008). This happened because it only depended on the thoughts of one man. In comparison to the previously mentioned law, this was an extremely unrealistic approach towards crime and other social issues. There was no use of logic, laws, bettering of human life, or even slight care on the same. For this reason, it was one of the periods that disoriented China laws and cultures the most.
Deng Xiao Ping’s China is characterized by Dengism, which is a series of economic and political ideologies developed by Xiaoping. This leader was responsible for returning the rule of law in China. Since, the laws and cultures of China had completely been destroyed. People had lost any respect that they had for Chinese law. This occurred as a result of the acts of the previous leader who had ignored them completely. This leader was regarded as the chief national policy maker. It is important to mention that he brought and led China towards social modernization. He ushered China into a new historical period. During this period, laws in the Chinese culture were followed to the latter. Issues, such as crimes, were dealt with according to the law. Being the latest period in the history of China, it became of great importance. It affected the way that this state is with the highest magnitude, as compared to the others. This law transformed China (Harrell, 1995).
Therefore, it is clear that in all the three historical periods, there was the application of Chinese laws and cultures. However, this has been affected by the leaders that were in power at the time, as well as the period in history. There came a time when China had to invite modernization in their culture. It happened when their cultures had been stepped on and disregarded. However, it is clear that the last period in the history of China was the most difficult one for the leader. He had to hit two birds with one stone. Therefore, he had to restore the Chinese cultures and laws that had been disregarded, as well as usher China into modernization in terms of social order.
Deng Xiao Ping’s China and Crime
Despite the bright side of this period that has been mentioned, there is no system or period that can only have positives. There are many crimes occurring in China, which range from corruption to street crimes. This has been favored by a number of reasons. First, this is a period of transformation. It involves a lot of modernization. This is an extremely hard task for a nation to transform from a communist society to a capitalist society. For this reason, it becomes hard to deal with certain issues of concern. Under this era in history, there are many factors that come into the equation with a capitalist society. Economic and political views have become of the essence in China, and have to be addressed with equal importance. It means that the social aspect of their lives receives less attention. Consequently, an increase in crimes was registered as 50% in 2009 (Huang, 2002).
As the nation moves into modernization, people discover other modern crimes as well. These are crimes that are associated with the new activities that arise with modernization. The fact that items and properties are not owned communally anymore, results to theft and other crimes. For this reason, this period has resulted to the highest crime rates in the history of China. The government of China has noted this fact and taken numerous measures to ensure that these crimes are curbed. They are also interfering with the growing reputation of this nation. Some of the measures that have been taken by the Chinese government are implementation of extremely strict laws. These are the laws that can prove instrumental in the elimination of all the risks associated with an increase in the rate of crimes. For example, crimes act as a repellant for investors. Being an economic success, China has to deal with the increase in the rate of crimes (Waley, 1989).
China also uses capital punishment on all the crimes that are considered serious and violent, for example, aggravated murder. However, there is the use of law in non-violent crimes, such as drug trafficking. China has shown one of the most historical records with regard to the punishment of crimes. As a matter of fact, it has been said to be the nation with the highest number of execution rates. PRC authorities have even gone to the extent of conducting research on this matter, since they think that the crimes that are punishable by death should be reduced. This is in a bid to reduce the high number of execution rates experienced in the state. In the previous periods of history, the leaders had mostly focused on rehabilitation, as opposed to punishment (Keith & Lin, 2006). However, the state decided that this increase in the rate of crimes cannot be solved by the use of this philosophy. There is a need to punish crime doers. Accordingly, it prevents them from committing these crimes again, as well as becomes a lesson to the other citizens that might have the thoughts of engaging in the same crimes. Therefore, it can be concluded that this is a period that has had an increase in both the number of crimes, as well as the importance that the state puts on the matter. This way, there is some hope that the crimes can be reduced, in a bid to eliminate the risk of having China viewed as an unsafe country that cannot even attract investors from outside countries.
To sum up, there are a number of factors that are clear. First, the different periods in Chinese history had different rules. This is with special reference to the issues that concern social order. However, it is also clear that the transformation from one period to the other is extremely tricky. This is clear from the Deng Xiao Ping’s period. The transformation has resulted to the increase in crimes and subsequent use of resources to correct the same. It is, however, worth noting that these transformations are inevitable in every nation. They have to occur, regardless of the leader who is in power.