What Is Project Management?
General Notions and Methodologies
Being an expert in the area of project management is rather complicated. In order to run the project properly, one should be aware of the main stages of the process, i.e. brainstorming, planning, implementing ideas, supervising, and project completion. Moreover, it is necessary to organize a strong team able to attain the established goals within the set budget.
The core of the project management is using the adopted methods and practices to supervise the campaign from its launch till the end. Project management is usually abbreviated as PM.
Planning, managing, and introducing ideas for doing projects are the main objectives of the project management. One should properly understand what a project is. It is an undertaking of a particular type that should meet the established standards and result in a definite product, computer software, for example.
The item that plays an essential role in successful project completion is a project management plan. It should present the stages of project development with clearly set time frames, so that it is possible to complete and deliver the final result on time without overspending the budget. Such a plan should begin with a statement highlighting the potential risks and suggesting the ways any obstacles can be overcome in to finish the project on time.
Duties of a Project Manager
Each organization has a special department responsible for the project management deals. Employers hire appropriately qualified specialists who have relevant experience in this area to manage company’s projects.
In order to achieve the best result when carrying out different projects, managers use different tools and methods. Depending on the type of undertaking, company’s needs and policy, and other criteria, project managers choose the techniques that can help achieve the desirable outcome.
The process of carrying out a specific project includes several stages:
- Setting the target;
- Identifying the actions necessary for attaining the formulated objectives;
- Defining the resources needed for taking the mentioned actions;
- Setting the time frame and budget for each of the stages and the undertaking as a whole;
- Controlling the introduction of ideas;
- Presenting the final product.
Projects managers always maintain full control over the way the project is carried out to make sure it will be completed within the specified deadline and budget. Moreover, they check whether effective measures are taken to achieve the goals presented in the project management plan.
All projects require teamwork. In order to make the cooperation between the departments involved in the undertaking effective, it is necessary to properly explain everything to the employees. Moreover, project managers need to communicate with the stakeholders who have keen interest in different projects. That is why they should possess remarkable communication skills.
Methods Used in Project Management
When dealing with various undertakings, project managers use different techniques such as:
- Waterfall: A management method characterized by a logical implementation of ideas.
- Agile: A technique used for managing short tasks.
- Critical Path Method (CPM): It is a gradual PM method.
- PRINCE2: This method is widely used in the UK by its government. Additionally, it is employed by private companies on the international level.
- Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM): A technique that is concentrated on the use of resources, rather than timely delivery.
There are a number of other methods used in this specific area. Some of them are solely used to deal with a particular type of projects. For instance, Rapid Application Development method is adopted to managing projects in the area of software development, as it promotes quick development of various quality computer applications. The methodology called PRiSM is mainly concentrated on the product sustainability and aims to minimize the negative impact of different technologies on environment. Among other project management methods, there are such as joint application development, build and fix, etc.
Sometimes, project managers apply mixed management techniques when dealing with different projects. For example, the Six Sigma method was devised by Motorola. Its aim is to reduce waste and stimulate different processes, including those relating to project management. Scrum, a management framework, is used to manage projects done within a short period of time.