Category: Management 9th October 2019
If earlier people travelled because the world was not studied enough, and their travels were tiring, today people travel to see this already discovered world and enjoy it. Thus, travelling in earlier times and nowadays is absolutely different. Moreover, travel nowadays became a business. Countries that are interesting for tourists make great profit by virtue of well-run travel and tourism industry. Nevertheless, establishment of this industry took much time. According to Jayapalan, the history of tourism can be divided into three periods, which are the ancient, medieval, and modern ones. Ancient period was characterized by travelling of people to other countries for the purpose of trading. Medieval period became the beginning of real travelling. Thus, journeys to different countries were described in literary and philosophic works. Moreover, this period can be considered as period of religious travel. Christian travels to Jerusalem and Muslim travels to Mecca prove this fact. The last great contribution into development of travel was made by virtue of Industrial Revolution. This process changed people’s life beyond recognition. Thus, humanity moved from agriculture economy to machine manufacture with the help of technological, cultural, and economic changes. In the course of time, such inventions as electricity, steam engine, automobile, steamship, airplane, and many other things appeared in different countries and spread all over the world. The development of railroads began to widen in the end of 18th century . The first concept of modern airplane was invented at the end of 19th century. Moreover, people invent new machines and improve existing ones every year. Thus, the development of transport became one of the most important reasons that made the process of travelling easy and enjoyable.
Nevertheless, travelling can be not only for pleasure and rest. In the course of time, with the development of business, such type of travelling as business tourism occurred. This type of tourism is rooted in Ancient times. Even tribes which lived long ago, before Crist birth, understood that sometimes they lacked materials or products for normal life. At first, they exchanged goods which they received from nature, but then people began to develop manufacture and produced primitive everyday objects, jewelry, clothes. If at first the trade was spread in neighboring territories, in the course of time, people began to transport their products to distant countries. It became the beginning for development of business tourism. Later, business travel was influenced by industrial revolution. It began in United Kingdom and in the course of time spread all over the world. It is evident that new products were sold to other countries with the help of special people, which became a prototype for modern salesman and commercial travellers. According to John Swarbrooke and Susan Horner, one more reason for development of business travel is numerous numbers of European colonies. The last reason that was named by these researchers was improvement of the roads and invention of the railway. “Rail travel was faster than road transport and allowed business travellers to make business trips to more distant cities without it costing too much in terms of time or money” . In such a way, these occurrences made business tourism develop and function, as it does nowadays.
Travel and tourism sector include several components that help this business function in a proper way. Thus, they are the following: the travel sector, which includes travel agents, different kinds of tour operators, hotel booking agencies, air brokers; the transport sector which deals with airport authorities, railway stations, shipping companies; the hospitality sector, which provides tourists with accommodation and catering. The last sector is visitor and leisure attractions. It offers places where tourists can rest – theatres, museums, cinemas, art galleries, and other places of interest.
Although tourism is often regarded as the means of rest, or as the way to variegate holidays, it has great meaning in the functioning of country’s economy and politics. Thus, it is beneficial for local and national authorities to invest in tourism sector. The fact is that if they develop this industry, make it interesting for people, and offer something unusual and reasonable, tourists will come and enrich the country, at the same time deriving pleasure from their rest. The main function of the government is to provide the conditions for tourism development. Thus, it is essential to start with passage of laws considering tourism industry in the country. The next step is to establish governmental organizations that will regulate this industry. These organs are the most responsible for development of tourism in the country. Thus, they should take into account all the spheres that will be developed for proper functioning of tourism in the country. First of all, these organizations should be aware of the strengths of the country, which can be interesting for tourists. Thus, they can be unique landscapes, historical monuments, or places of world-wide known accidents. In general, these are all the things that can arouse tourist’s interest. The next step is to think of how to present this country’s wealth to people. Mountains, for example, can become a perfect means of rest for those who like camping. Seaside place will attract those who want to rest leisurely and carelessly. Presentation of historical monuments will be an interesting pastime for curious people. One more thing that should be provided by governments considering the question of tourism is creating laws considering environmental protection and other things that are linked with tourism in not direct way.
Nevertheless, sphere of tourism can be developed not only with the help of national or local authorities. Thus, international agencies also make contribution to development of travel and tourism sector, and their role is not less significant than the government’s one. For example, United Nations World Tourism Organization, which includes 156 countries, deals with developing of tourism quality, marketing intelligence, personal training for work in tourism sector, communication and documentation. It also provides cooperation with different countries in order to develop travel and tourism sector. It is evident that without this organization, the development of tourism would be slower and more inconvenient process. Thus, both national governments and international organization do everything possible to develop tourism bringing benefits for countries and pleasure for tourists.
It is obvious that for many countries, tourism is one of the main sources of income, and that is why economic policies and tourism sector are connected. Thus, prices for airplane and train tickets, prices for apartments for tourists, and money invested in the sphere of tourism will affect this sector. Thus, it is evident that for tourists who come for rest, reasonable prices for moving from one country to another, for hotels and nutrition, and for visiting places of interest will draw tourist’s attention. Subsidies from the government, which invest into tourism sector development, will only increase its effective work. Attractive marketing campaigns, which encourage people to visit the country and which depend on the budget provided by economic policy, will also have positive influence of tourism development. In contrast, high prices for products and services will bring no results in attracting tourists.
As it was mentioned above, tourism can be not only for pleasure but also for business. Thus, the main reasons, which increase business tourism, especially within the country, are living in country-side and high prices for apartments in the city.
One more thing that proves that economy and tourism are inseparable occurrences is global financial crisis, which took place several years ago. Thus, increased level of unemployment, collapsed business, reduced investments, and decreased currency values affected all the spheres of people’s life, and tourism was among them. It is obvious that if the financial hardship makes people save money and spend them only for the goods which are important for life, not for entertainment or tourism.
Thus, it is evident that economy influences the development of tourism greatly. That is why it is important for governments to rule the economy carefully in order to organize the work of all spheres of country lifein a proper way.
Nevertheless, the development of tourism depends not only on economic questions. Thus, the politics of the country also has great influence on tourism. For example, the situation in Egypt is a bright example. Terrorist attacks and civil movements frighten tourists. It is evident that nobody wants to spend time in the country where fire-fights and acts of terror can occur at any moment. It is impossible to rest with understanding of permanent danger. That is why tourists choose the time for rest in Egypt very cautiously. Moreover, governments of other countries, people of which often go to Egypt to spend their holidays, warn about the dangerous political situation and try to prevent people from going there until the danger ends.
The same situation is observed in Pakistan. The last news report about numerous explosions with human loses. Terrorist attacks became often occurrences. Thus, it is evident that it is problem of government, which cannot rule the country in a proper way. It influences the development of all spheres of social life. That is why it is significant for governments to fix the work of all governmental, law, and social organizations in order to develop the country in different dimensions and bring benefits to it.
Tourism demand is the central part of tourism economy. According to Dwyer and Forsyth, tourist demand is “The willingness and ability of consumers to buy different amounts of a tourism product at different prices during some period of time” . Demand for travel is influenced by several factors. Among them, there are the following ones: economy, politics, crisis and threats, demographic change, and technology. As it was said earlier, economy and politics influence tourism sector, but not only in the countries that offer places for tourists. These factors influence people who want to go to another country in order to have holidays or business. Thus, it is evident that if a person has not enough money, he/she will not be able to travel. If the political situation of the country from which a person wants to move, is negative, it is hardly possible for a person to leave it. Other factors that influence tourism demand are crisis and threats. They include terrorism, epidemic diseases, and natural disasters. Partially, some of these occurrences, such as terrorism acts and epidemics, are of political nature, and they can be solved. As for natural disasters, they are unpredictable. Hardly government could do anything to prevent an earthquake or hurricane. That is why going to the countries where the risk of occurrence of natural disaster is high demands thorough speculation. It is unlikely that a person who knows about the rate of natural disasters in Haiti or Indonesia will go there for rest. Demographic change also influences the demand for travel. Thus, the most spread category of travelling people is young people. It is interesting for them to see different countries, try new ways of pastime, while, as it is confirmed by Martin Lohmann, people at the age of 60-65 choose one specific type of travelling . One more popular type of travelling, according to demographic changes, is family travelling. Nevertheless, if earlier such rest were characterized by the whole family going on holidays somewhere, nowadays it tends to one-person holidays, when members of family spend their free time separately. The last factor that influences the demand for travel, is technology, which includes transport and communication. Modern industry offers wide variety of means of transport. Depending on the country or continent where a person wants to spend his/her holidays, he/she will choose car, train, airplane or another type of vehicle accordingly.
As the sphere of tourism and demand for it is changing every day, the suppliers of tourism product and services should correspond to modern requirements. Thus, countries of European Union, such as Portugal, Austria, France, Spain, Italy, Germany and others, provide different quality systems that control the quality of tourism products and deal with their implementation in tourism sector.
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Tourism, as one of the most developed spheres of people’s life, has an impact on it. Thus, among spread impacts of tourism, one can distinguish environmental, social, and economic ones. Each of these types of impacts has its positive and negative sides. For example, positive environmental impacts suppose providing the protection of environment. As tourists demand the areas which they are visiting to be clean, beautiful, and intact, great sums of money, received from tourism sphere, are put up into the maintaining of clean environment. Tourism also has its negative impacts connected with the environment. Thus, tourists do not always care about the nature, which is the reason why natural environment is destroyed. Even if tourists are responsible, natural landscapes can be still destroyed in the course of time. Snowdonia National Park in north Wales can be given as an example. Statistics shows that about 850 people walk to the summit of Snowdon every day , and it damages natural paths.
Tourism also has social impact on people and countries. The following effects of the tourism can be regarded aspositive: developing positive attitudes to other nations, learning more about different cultures and traditions, reducing national stereotypes, finding new friends, developing understanding and tolerance of other cultures, and having satisfaction from communication with different people. Except for positive influence, negative one also takes place in the sphere of tourism. It can be expressed in assimilation and conflicts.
The last but not the least impact of tourism is economic impact. It is evident that the sphere of tourism contributes “to sales, profits, jobs, tax revenues, and income in an area” . Nevertheless, it has negative impact, such as leakage – money which is received not by the local authorities, but by international companies, hotels, and airlines. Two more widespread negative impacts on economy are dependence of the local community on tourism and seasonal jobs. These problems are characterized by partial employment of people in the tourism sphere. Thus, countries, the main income of which depends on tourism, will lose money during unprofitable seasons. That is why not only people whose job is connected with tourism sector but the whole town or country will suffer from low income.
These widespread negative impacts of tourism are undoubtedly unpleasant occurrences in life of local people and host country. It is evident that these impacts should not be ignored. That is why government of any country where tourism sector is developed should pay attention to measures for changing negative impacts of tourism to positive ones. Thus, for saving the environment of the places that are visited by tourists, special laws, which provide penalties for pollution of protected areas and destruction of monuments, should be created. Improvement of economic side of the tourism sector can be provided with the help of investment in all-season tourism programs. Thus, it will cover the problem of seasonal employment of people. As for social negative impact, it can be changed to positive only by virtue of people’s understanding of other cultures and respect of other nations. These traits should be developed not only by host countries, it is essential to develop them by people all over the world.
These common characteristics of tourism sector can be applied to any country with developed tourism sphere. In this work, France will be analyzed as an example of the country with well-developed tourism sector. France takes the first place in the world among the countries that are visited by the tourists.
The development of tourism in France traces back to the middle of 19th century, when after the Napoleon’s fall, many people came back to France, especially in Nice, and started to renew the life which they lived before. Thus, plenty of hotels and luxurious apartments appeared. As people from north began to come to France for winter holidays in order to benefit from sweetness of a climate, many theatres and entertainment events, such as Carnival, appeared. The rapid development of the tourism in France began with the creating of rail ways. Thus, during the end of 18th to the beginning of 19th century, France was visited by the ruling families from different countries. At this time, many luxurious buildings were created. France have not lost its popularity after the World War II and still attracted tourists and provided beautiful conditions for rest in the country.
The two most significant sub-sectors of tourism not only in France but all over the world, in which the tourists are interested the first time they travel, are accommodation and attractions. As it was mentioned above, hotels have been building in France since 18th century. Thus, it is evident that everyone who wants to travel in France will choose an appropriate apartment in accordance with one’s wishes and means. In other words, tourists can live in cheap hostels in provinces or in luxury and expensive hotels in prestigious regions of Paris. The second sub-sector that is covered in the work considering tourism in France is attractions. France was always famous for its places of interest. Thus, Eiffel Tower, Centre Pompidou, Arc de Triomphe, the Elysian Fields, and many other attractions will make tourists visit France again and again.
As any national tourism organization, the one in France deals with developing the tourism sector and its quality by providing national policies in this field; advertising of tourism products and services via Internet; offering apartments to live in and places of interest to visit for tourists; formulating financial programs for tourism development. Thus, national tourism organization makes everything possible for improvement of this sphere for tourists and for French government.
As France takes the first place in the list of countries which are often visited by tourists, it is evident that tourism sector contributes greatly to the development of French economy. Thus, tourism sector provides about 30 million euros per year in the hotel, restaurant, and leisure business. The statistics shows that the income which is received from the tourism in France is higher than that from energy, agriculture, and motor industry.
The demand for tourism in France is determined by the fact that it is one of the most developed European countries. First of all, it is rich in historical monuments, which have always attracted tourists. Secondly, tourism sector of France offers programs for summer vacations as well as for winter ones. It means that tourists can visit this country at any time they want and enjoy the possibilities which are presented by the country. One more demand for tourism in France is religious pilgrimage. It is a well-known fact that about 100,000 people make Christian pilgrimage to Lourdes in order to study Bible, pray, and work for community.
As France is on a high level of tourism development, it strives to improve this sphere in different ways. One of the bright examples of how France is coping with negative impacts of tourism is providing of ecotourism in this country. Thus, French Ecotourism Association tends to save the nature, promote love for it, and show the benefits of saving the nature.
Thus, tourism sector is developed in many countries all over the world. For great number of countries, it is one of the most important ways of income. Tourism sector is a complex system, which demands to create laws and special organizations, provide policies and travel programs, which will develop this sector and benefit the country. While building tourism sector, it is significant to remember about local and national authorities and international organizations, which can make the functioning of the tourism sector better only if working together. The specificity of work of travel and tourism sector was shown on the example of France – the first country in the list of those that are mostly visited by tourists.